Types of RNA
RNA is a polymer of ribonucleotides, formed from DNA by transcription. And it translates to protein to perform specific functions of cell. Types of RNA are:
Messenger RNA (mRNA):
- mRNA carries the genetic information from DNA to Ribosome.
- It acts as a template for protein synthesis.
- It carries the information for the arrangement of amino acids in a polypeptide chain.
- They are monocistronic in eukaryotes and polycistronic in prokaryotes (codes for many polypeptide chains).
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA):
- Most abundant RNA found in cells.
- They are the structural components of ribosomes.
- They are 3 types in prokaryotes 5S, 16S, 23S.
- 4 types in eukaryotes 5S, 5.8S, 18S, 28S.
- Ribosomes play a structural and catalytic role in protein synthesis.
- It helps in the attachment of mRNA and tRNA to ribosomes during protein synthesis.
Transfer RNA (tRNA):
- tRNA is also called as “Soluble RNA” or “adaptor molecule“.
- It helps in decoding the information present on the messenger RNA during protein synthesis.
- It binds to activated amino acids and transfers them to ribosomes.
- The Clover leaf model of tRNA – given by Holley.