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Human Evolution

by Ramneet Kaur
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Human Evolution

Human evolution includes a single genus Homo with a single living species sapiens and a sub species sapiens.

All racial groups Mongoloid, Negroid, Caucasoid, and Australoid are the types of Homo sapiens sapiens.

  • Primates originated in the Palaeocene epoch of the Tertiary period about 65 million years ago.
  • The beginning of primate evolution is presumed in Eocene of the tertiary period in evergreen forests.
  • Fossils of human were obtained from Africa, Asia, and Europe.
  • From the earliest ape to the modern man, the evolution is a slow and dynamic process.
  • Dryopithecus got differentiated and the first man like primate was Ramapithecus.
  • Australopithecus constitute the first ape man.

HUMAN EVOLUTION:

Time period

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Name

Brain capacity

 Remarks

10-15 m years agoDryopithecus (earliest fossil ape)

325-510 cc

East Africa, Asia, hairy, closely related to chimpanzee.
Ramapithecus (man like)Shivalik hills, erect posture, small canines.
2 m years agoAustralopithecus (cave man)500 ccAfrican ape-man, height 1.5m, upright.
Homo habilis (handy man)700-800 ccTool maker, community life.
1.2 m years agoHomo erectus (includes 3 fossils – Java ape, Peking & Heidelberg man)800 to 1300 cc

1st to use fire, larger teeth.

1,00,000-40,000 m years ago

 Neanderthal man

1450 cc

East and central Asia. Cave dwellers used hides to protect their body & buried the dead.
2500 m years ago Homo sapiens 1650 ccModern man, height 1.5 to 1.8 m, flat face.

HUMAN CLASSIFICATION:

KingdomAnimalia
PhylumChordata
Sub-phylumVertebrata
SectionGnathostomata
Super-classTetrapoda
ClassMammalia
OrderPrimata
Sub-orderAnthropoidea
FamilyHominidae
GenusHomo
Speciessapiens

Also read Evolution: The geological time scale  Mnemonic

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