It occurs in pairs, just above the kidney on either side of the spinal column.
It consists of 2 parts:
- Outer Adrenal cortex
- Inner Adrenal medulla.
Present outer to the cortex is a fibrous capsule.
Hormones produce their effects on target tissues by binding to receptor proteins present in the target tissues.
On the basis of chemical nature, hormones are divided into:
Factor I – Fibrinogen; common pathway; converted to fibrin.
Factor II – Prothrombin; common pathway; converted to thrombin that converts fibrinogen to fibrin.
Factor III – Tissue factor (TF) or thromboplastin; extrinsic pathway.
Factor IV – Calcium ions (Ca2+); always present, needed for coagulation.
Pepsin converts protein into peptones & proteoses.
Renin converts Casein (milk protein) into the peptide.