Q1) Choose the correct combinations of labeling the carbohydrate molecule involved in the Calvin cycle.
(a) (i) RuBP (ii) Triose phosphate (iii) PGA
(b) (i) PGA (ii) RuBP (iii) Hexose phosphate
(c) (i) PGA (ii) Triose Phosphate (iii) RuBP
(d) (i) RuBP (ii) PGA (iii) Hexose phosphate
PEDIGREE ANALYSIS MCQs
In the above pedigree, find out of the following four:
- Autosomal Dominant
- Autosomal recessive
- X-linked dominant
- X-linked recessive
According to this principle, the frequency of alleles & genotype in a population remains constant from generation to generation, if the population is stable & in genetic equilibrium.
GENE POOL: Total genes & their alleles in a population. Its gene pool remains constant.
This is applicable in case of:
- Diploid organisms.
- Sexually reproducing organisms.
- Large populations: as this helps to ensure that chance alone does not disrupt genetic equilibrium.
- Organisms showing random mating.
- No mutation or if they occur the rate is same in both directions.
- All members of a population survive and have equal reproductive potential.
Vectors are DNA molecules that can carry foreign DNA into another cell and also replicate it. Also known as vehicle DNA.
Essential features of a cloning vector:
- Origin of replication: ORI is a specific sequence on a DNA molecule from where replication starts. It will also replicate the foreign DNA linked to it. It also controls the copy number of the linked DNA.
- Selectable markers: these are genes present in the vector that help us in identifying and eliminating non-recombinants (non-transformants) from recombinants (transformants). E.g., Antibiotic resistance genes such as tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol or kanamycin etc., in E.coli.
- Cloning sites/ recognition sites: it is site of a restriction endonuclease that is present only once in the cloning vector
Mechanism of Hormone Action:
Hormones produce their effects on target tissues by binding to receptor proteins present in the target tissues.
On the basis of chemical nature, hormones are divided into:
- Peptide, polypeptide & protein hormones: Insulin, Glucagon, Pituitary hormones, Hypothalamic hormones.
- Steroids: Cortisol, Testosterone, Progesterone, Estrogen.
- Iodothyronines: Thyroid hormones.
- Amino acid derivatives: Epinephrine.
Mode of Hormone Action:
- Non-steroid hormones: They are amino acid, peptides & protein hormones. As they are water soluble & lipid insoluble, they cannot pass through the cell membrane. So, they act through second messengers.
- Steroid hormones: They are lipid soluble, and can pass through the cell membrane. So they directly enter the cell. The only exception being Thyroid hormones that are amine derivatives but are lipid soluble.