- Term ‘auxein’ means to grow.
- Weak organic acid
- Found in the root & shoot tip.
- Shows polar movements: i.e., shoot tip downwards & root tip upwards.
- Charles Darwin & his son Francis Darwin: 1st reported the presence of auxin in the coleoptile of canary grass (Phalaris). They showed that the coleoptile started growing towards unilateral illumination (phototropism), while the decapitated coleoptile did not.
- F W Went: Performed the Agar block experiment in Avena coleoptile (oat). He decapitated the tip of Avena coleoptile and kept it on an agar block, he later replaced the tip with agar block, the coleoptile started growing towards the light.
- Went named it as ‘Auxin’.
- Kogl & Haagen-smith: Isolated it from human urine.
Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) & Indole butyric acid (IBA).
2,4-dichloro phenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) & IBA.
- The clotting factors are a group of chemicals in the blood which is responsible for the formation of blood clot.
- Clotting factors are usually inactive but once there is an injury to the wall of the blood vessel, they get activated.
- The function of clotting factors is to trigger the formation of a blood clot and stabilize it for as long as necessary.
- Clotting factors are therefore known as procoagulants.
MNEMONIC for Clotting Factors:
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Factor I – Fibrinogen; common pathway; converted to fibrin.
Factor II – Prothrombin; common pathway; converted to thrombin that converts fibrinogen to fibrin.
Factor III – Tissue factor (TF) or thromboplastin; extrinsic pathway.
Factor IV – Calcium ions (Ca2+); always present, needed for coagulation.
Digestion of carbohydrates:
In oral cavity:
- Amylase (ptyalin) converts starch & glycogen → Maltose.
In the small intestine:
By Pancreatic juices:
- α – Amylase converts starch → Maltose.
By Intestinal juices:
- Maltase converts maltose →glucose.
- Sucrase converts sucrose → glucose & fructose.
- Lactase converts lactose → glucose & galactose.
Digestion of proteins:
By Gastric juices:
- HCl provides acidic pH.
- Pepsinogen (proenzyme) converted by HCl into Pepsin.
Pepsin converts protein into peptones & proteoses.
- Prorenin (proenzyme) converted by HCl into Renin.
Renin converts Casein (milk protein) into the peptide.